Cognitive Dissonance

Monish Subherwal

1.  “Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort experienced when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions: ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. In a state of dissonance, people may sometimes feel “disequilibrium”: frustration, hunger, dread, guilt, anger, embarrassment, anxiety, etc.” – Wikipedia 2.  (My expansion) Cognitive dissonance also happens when people engage in behavior that conflicts with one’s beliefs. For example, when …

Cognitive reappraisal

Monish Subherwal

When something makes us feel bad, we might try to re-tell the story to ourselves in a way that isn’t quite so painful.

Continuers

Monish Subherwal

When we listen, we can respond to others using continuers that let the other person know their message is being received and that you are actively engaged with them.  Common continuers are expressed vocally or through head nods.  Vocal continuers are words like mm hm, uh huh, and yeah.